We Tried a Dating App That Lets a Chatbot Break the Ice for You It Got Weird

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Chatbot breakthrough in the 2020s? An ethical reflection on the trend of automated consultations in health care PMC

chatbot in healthcare

It cites its sources, is very fast, and is reasonably reliable (as far as AI goes). If you are a Microsoft Edge user seeking more comprehensive search results, opting for Bing AI or Microsoft Copilot as your search engine would be advantageous. Particularly, individuals who prefer and solely rely on Bing Search (as opposed to Google) will find these enhancements to the Bing experience highly valuable.

  • Our review suggests that healthbots, while potentially transformative in centering care around the user, are in a nascent state of development and require further research on development, automation, and adoption for a population-level health impact.
  • The specific use case of chatbots in oncology with examples of actual products and proposed designs are outlined in Table 1.
  • Impetus for the research on the therapeutic use of chatbots in mental health, while still predominantly experimental, predates the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • These chatbots vary in their conversational style, the depth of communication, and the type of solutions they provide.

Nonetheless, we consider it important to raise this point when talking about chatbots and their potential breakthrough in health care. We suggest that new ethico-political approaches are required in professional ethics because chatbots can become entangled with clinical practices in complex ways. It is difficult to assess the legitimacy of particular applications and their underlying business interests using concepts drawn from universal AI ethics or traditional professional ethics inherited from bioethics. Ethical issues within chatbots in health professional work do not simply fall in the domain of individual or organisational challenges; they require policy decisions on how the new tools can be implemented in order to automate decisions based on human assessment. Insufficient consideration regarding the implementation of chatbots in health care can lead to poor professional practices, creating long-term side effects and harm for professionals and their patients. While we acknowledge that the benefits of chatbots can be broad, whether they outweigh the potential risks to both patients and physicians has yet to be seen.

OpenAI Unveils New ChatGPT That Listens, Looks and Talks

They never get tired and help reduce the workload for doctors, which makes patient care better. Changing the way health care is delivered to rely on AI and chatbots may create some issues with who is able to access information and care. Relying more on technology means access would likely increase for some people and decrease for others. The availability and cost of smartphones and computers, as well as reliable internet access, could impact some patients’ ability to access health information or health care.

What Is the Cost to Develop a Chatbot like Google’s AMIE? – Appinventiv

What Is the Cost to Develop a Chatbot like Google’s AMIE?.

Posted: Mon, 01 Apr 2024 07:00:00 GMT [source]

HCP expertise relies on the intersubjective circulation of knowledge, that is, a pool of dynamic knowledge and the intersubjective criticism of data, knowledge and processes. If you are interested in knowing how chatbots work, read our articles on voice recognition applications and natural language processing. Chatbots ask patients about their current health issue, find matching physicians and dentists, provide available time slots, and can schedule, reschedule, and delete appointments for patients. Chatbots can also be integrated into user’s device calendars to send reminders and updates about medical appointments. Relevant is ready to consult you and help you create an informational, administrative, hybrid chatbot, etc. Skillful in healthcare software development, our dedicated developers can utilize out-of-the-box components or create custom medical сonversational AI chatbots from the ground up.

Character AI is unique because it lets you talk to characters made by other users, and you can make your own. People love Chatsonic because it’s easy to use and connects well with other Writesonic tools. Users say they can develop ideas quickly using Chatsonic and that it is a good investment. Jasper AI is a boon for content creators looking for a smart, efficient way to produce SEO-optimized content. It’s perfect for marketers, bloggers, and businesses seeking to increase their digital presence. Jasper is exceptionally suited for marketing teams that create high amounts of output.

Watsonx AI Assistants provide consistent answers to patient questions and can step up to act as symptom checkers, conduct patient triage and manage routine tasks like appointment scheduling, prescription refilling, appointment reminders or follow-ups. By handling these actions, healthcare professionals can focus their energy where it’s needed most, on complex care tasks. Moreover, as patients grow to trust chatbots more, they may lose trust in healthcare professionals. Secondly, placing too much trust in chatbots may potentially expose the user to data hacking.

The benefit of using chatbots for smoking cessation across various age groups has been highlighted in numerous studies showing improved motivation, accessibility, and adherence to treatment, which have led to increased smoking abstinence [89-91]. The cognitive behavioral therapy–based chatbot SMAG, supporting users over the Facebook social network, resulted in a 10% higher cessation rate compared with control groups [50]. Motivational interview–based chatbots have been proposed with promising results, where a significant number of patients showed an increase in their confidence and readiness to quit smoking after 1 week [92]. No studies have been found to assess the effectiveness of chatbots for smoking cessation in terms of ethnic, racial, geographic, or socioeconomic status differences.

The Role of Artificial Intelligence

Developers and professionals seeking to implement chatbots should weigh the risks and benefits by clearly defining the aim of the chatbot and the problem to be solved in their circumstances. There should be careful assessment of the problem to be solved to determine whether the use of AI or chatbots is an appropriate solution. There may be instances in which the benefits of implementation are too low or the risks are too high to justify replacing humans.7 The use of chatbots in health care requires an evidence-based approach. The appropriate evidence to support the safe and effective use of chatbots for the intended purpose and population should be gathered and incorporated before implementation.

We’ve written a detailed Jasper Review article for those looking into the platform, not just its chatbot. In their tests, the researchers asked over 2,000 medical-related questions to ChatGPT-3.5 and MedAlpaca. Yet, more than 67% of its responses to non-English questions were irrelevant or contradictory. A voice chatbot is another conversation tool that allows users to interact with the bot by speaking to it, rather than typing. Some users may be frustrated by the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology they’ve encountered, especially when the system can’t retrieve the information a user is looking for from the pre-programmed menu options and puts the user on hold.

With psychiatry-oriented chatbots, people can interact with a virtual mental health ‘professional’ to get some relief. These chatbots are trained on massive data and include natural language processing capabilities to understand users’ concerns and provide appropriate advice. However, some of these were sketches of the interface rather than the final user interface, and most of the screenshots had insufficient description as to what the capabilities were. Although the technical descriptions of chatbots might constitute separate papers in their own right, these descriptions were outside the scope for our focus on evidence in public health.

Based on findings from recent empirical studies of health chatbots, we approach the topic from the perspective of professional ethics and consider professional–patient relations and the changing positions of these stakeholders on health and medical assessments. In these ethical discussions, technology use is frequently ignored, technically automated mechanical functions are prioritised over human initiatives, or tools are treated as neutral partners in facilitating human cognitive efforts. So far, there has been scant discussion on how digitalisation, including chatbots, transform medical practices, especially in the context of human capabilities in exercising practical wisdom (Bontemps-Hommen et al. 2019). This editorial discusses the role of artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots in the healthcare sector, emphasizing their potential as supplements rather than substitutes for medical professionals. While AI chatbots have demonstrated significant potential in managing routine tasks, processing vast amounts of data, and aiding in patient education, they still lack the empathy, intuition, and experience intrinsic to human healthcare providers. Furthermore, the deployment of AI in medicine brings forth ethical and legal considerations that require robust regulatory measures.

It benefits people who like information presented in a conversational format rather than traditional search result pages. Microsoft was one of the first companies to provide a dedicated chat experience (well before Google’s Gemini and Search Generative Experiment). It uses OpenAI technologies combined with proprietary systems to retrieve live data from the web. Microsoft Copilot is an AI assistant infused with live web search results from Bing Search.

  • Copy.ai has undergone an identity shift, making its product more compelling beyond simple AI-generated writing.
  • With deep learning, the longer an AI chatbot has been in operation, the better it can understand what the user wants to accomplish and provide more detailed, accurate responses, as compared to a chatbot with a recently integrated algorithm-based knowledge.
  • Plus, a chatbot in the medical field should fully comply with the HIPAA regulation.
  • However, as Privacy International commented in a review of the WHO guidelines, the guidelines do not go far enough in challenging the assumption that the use of AI will inherently lead to better outcomes [60].
  • Conversely, if chatbots are available in multiple languages, those people who currently have more trouble accessing health care in their first language may find they have improved access if a chatbot “speaks” their language.

Federated learning is an emerging research topic that addresses the challenges of preserving data privacy and security in the context of machine learning, including AI chatbots. It allows multiple participants to collaboratively train a machine learning model without sharing their raw data. Instead, the model is trained locally on each participant’s device or server using their respective data, and only the updated model parameters are shared with a central server or coordinator.

We are dedicated to providing cutting-edge healthcare software solutions that improve patient outcomes and streamline healthcare processes. “Empowering the healthcare industry with innovative software solutions. Helping healthcare professionals deliver better patient care.” Medical chatbots contribute to optimal medication adherence by sending timely reminders and alerts to patients. This proactive approach minimizes the risk of missed doses, fostering a higher level of patient compliance with prescribed treatment plans. Evolving into versatile educational instruments, chatbots deliver accurate and relevant health information to patients. This empowerment enables individuals to make well-informed decisions about their health, contributing to a more health-conscious society.

As an interdisciplinary subject of study for both HCI and public health research, studies must meet the standards of both fields, which are at times contradictory [52]. Methods developed for the evaluation of pharmacological interventions such as RCTs, which were designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, are known in HCI and related fields [53] to be limited in the insights they provide toward better design. Chatbots are computer programs that present a conversation-like interface through which people can access information and services. The COVID-19 pandemic has driven a substantial increase in the use of chatbots to support and complement traditional health care systems. However, despite the uptake in their use, evidence to support the development and deployment of chatbots in public health remains limited. Recent reviews have focused on the use of chatbots during the COVID-19 pandemic and the use of conversational agents in health care more generally.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the step-by-step process of developing and implementing medical chatbot, shedding light on their crucial role in improving patient engagement and healthcare accessibility. A chatbot can offer a safe space to patients and interact in a positive, unbiased language in mental health cases. Mental health chatbots like Woebot, Wysa, and Youper are trained in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), which helps to treat problems by transforming the way patients think and behave. In the fast-paced healthcare industry, healthcare organizations are fiercely competing to raise the bar and ensure they provide reliable and personalized medical assistance. Patients expect real-time support covering the full spectrum of health topics, from well-being and mental health to medical advice on health issues.

The development—especially conceptual in nature—of ADM has one of its key moments in the aftermath of World War II, that is, the era of the Cold War. America and the Soviets were both keen (in their own ways) on find ways to automatise and streamline their societies (including decision-making). This was led by people from different fields of science, who were reconceptualising human reason ‘as rationality’ (p. 29), thus creating formal models of functions and processes of biological and artificial organisms, firms, organisations and even societies.

Depending on the type of chatbot, developers use a graphical user interface, voice interactions, or gestures, all of which use different machine learning models to understand human language and generate appropriate responses. Despite the initial chatbot https://chat.openai.com/ hype dwindling down, medical chatbots still have the potential to improve the healthcare industry. The three main areas where they can be particularly useful include diagnostics, patient engagement outside medical facilities, and mental health.

Chatbots can handle a large volume of patient inquiries, reducing the workload of healthcare professionals and allowing them to focus on more complex tasks. This increased efficiency can result in better patient outcomes and a higher quality of care. As federated learning continues to evolve, researchers and practitioners are actively exploring various techniques and algorithms to address the complexities of healthcare data privacy, security, and regulatory compliance (15).

Textbox 1 describes some examples of the recommended apps for each type of chatbot but are not limited to the ones specified. Since data capture happens during a conversation, it feels less intrusive than lead capture pop-ups. Also, a healthcare chatbot can be used to recognize existing patients and make their scheduling experience even smoother.

Jasper is dialed and trained for marketing and SEO writing tasks, which is perfect for website copy and blog posts. We all know that ChatGPT can sound somewhat robotic when using it for writing assignments. Jasper and Jasper Chat solved that issue long ago with its platform for generating text meant to be shared with customers and website visitors. If you want to see why people switch away from it, reference our ChatGPT alternatives guide, which shares more.

Users choose quick replies to ask for a location, address, email, or simply to end the conversation. These platforms have different elements that developers can use for creating the best chatbot UIs. Almost all of these platforms have vibrant visuals that provide information in the form of texts, buttons, and imagery to make navigation and interaction effortless.

chatbot in healthcare

The lack of real-time updates to the content of chatbots could result in people receiving out-of-date information in response to their queries. The same can be true for human-to-human interactions; however, a health care provider does have the ability to access up-to-date information in real time, whereas an AI chatbot does not. Chatbots can help patients navigate a sometimes complex health care system when used to identify available providers and to facilitate appointment scheduling. The intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and healthcare has been a hotbed for innovative exploration.

Use Cases of Chatbots in Healthcare

Similarly, a graph-based chatbot has been proposed to identify the mood of users through sentimental analysis and provide human-like responses to comfort patients [84]. Vivobot (HopeLab, Inc) provides cognitive and behavioral Chat GPT interventions to deliver positive psychology skills and promote well-being. This psychiatric counseling chatbot was effective in engaging users and reducing anxiety in young adults after cancer treatment [40].

The literature review and chatbot search were all conducted by a single reviewer, which could have potentially introduced bias and limited findings. In addition, our review explored a broad range of health care topics, and some areas could have been elaborated upon and explored more deeply. Furthermore, only a limited number of studies were included for each subtopic of chatbots for oncology apps because of the scarcity of studies addressing this topic. Future studies should consider refining the search strategy to identify other potentially relevant sources that may have been overlooked and assign multiple reviews to limit individual bias. In terms of cancer diagnostics, AI-based computer vision is a function often used in chatbots that can recognize subtle patterns from images. This would increase physicians’ confidence when identifying cancer types, as even highly trained individuals may not always agree on the diagnosis [52].

Chatbots in healthcare are computer programs designed to simulate conversation with human users, providing personalized assistance and support. The trajectory of AI integration in healthcare unmistakably moves towards more streamlined, efficient, and patient-centric modalities, with chatbots at the forefront of this transformation. These AI-driven chatbots serve as virtual assistants to healthcare providers, offering real-time information, decision support, and facilitating seamless communication with patients. Many healthcare chatbots using artificial intelligence already exist in the healthcare industry. These include OneRemission, which helps cancer patients manage symptoms and side effects, and Ada Health, which assesses symptoms and creates personalized health information, among others. As computerised chatbots are characterised by a lack of human presence, which is the reverse of traditional face-to-face interactions with HCPs, they may increase distrust in healthcare services.

If your patients trust your clinic, they will also trust your chatbot, so it has to live up to their expectations. You can make your patients’ lives easier by allowing them to schedule appointments and ask questions in a stress-free manner — through your chatbot. It’ll also make your team’s life easier since up to 73% of healthcare admin tasks could be automated this way. The integration of medical chatbot with Electronic Health Records (EHR) ensures personalized responses. Access to patient information enables chatbots to tailor interactions, providing contextually relevant assistance and information.

The design principles of most health technologies are based on the idea that technologies should mimic human decision-making capacity. These systems are computer programmes that are ‘programmed to try and mimic a human expert’s decision-making ability’ (Fischer and Lam 2016, p. 23). Thus, their function is to solve complex problems using reasoning methods such as the if-then-else format. In the early days, the problem of these systems was ‘the complexity of mapping out the data in’ the system (Fischer and Lam 2016, p. 23).

The application should be in line with up-to-date medical regulations, ethical codes and research data. Pasquale pointed to an Australian study of 82 mobile apps ‘marketed to those suffering from bipolar disorder’, only to find out that ‘the apps were, in general, not in line with practice guidelines or established self-management principles’ (p. 57). Today, chatbots offer diagnosis of symptoms, mental healthcare consultation, nutrition facts and tracking, and more. For example, in 2020 WhatsApp collaborated with the World Health Organization (WHO) to make a chatbot service that answers users’ questions on COVID-19.

More simple solutions can lead to new costs and workload when the usage of new technology creates unexpected problems in practice. Thus, new technologies require system-level assessment of their effects in the design and implementation phase. Chatbots can extract patient information by asking simple questions such as their name, address, symptoms, current doctor, and insurance details. The chatbots then, through EDI, store this information in the medical facility database to facilitate patient admission, symptom tracking, doctor-patient communication, and medical record keeping. Certainly, chatbots can’t match the expertise and care provided by seasoned doctors or qualified nurses because their knowledge bases might be constrained, and their responses sometimes fall short of user expectations. Each type of chatbot plays a unique role in the healthcare ecosystem, contributing to improved patient experience, enhanced efficiency, and personalized care.

Hyro is an adaptive communications platform that replaces common-place intent-based AI chatbots with language-based conversational AI, built from NLU, knowledge graphs, and computational linguistics. Once the fastest-growing health app in Europe, Ada Health has attracted more than 1.5 million users, who use it as a standard diagnostic tool to provide a detailed assessment of their health based on the symptoms they input. Although prescriptive chatbots are conversational by design, they are built not just to answer questions or provide direction, but to offer therapeutic solutions. Conversational chatbots are built to be contextual tools that respond based on the user’s intent. However, there are different levels of maturity to a conversational chatbot – not all of them offer the same depth of conversation. The majority (28/32, 88%) of the studies contained very little description of the technical implementation of the chatbot, which made it difficult to classify the chatbots from this perspective.

This document is prepared and intended for use in the context of the Canadian health care system. Although, if you’re looking for a basic chatbot assisting your website visitors, we advise you to take a look at some existing solutions like Smith.ai, Acobot, or Botsify. The Rule requires that your company design a mechanism that encrypts all electronic PHI when necessary, both at rest or in transit over electronic communication tools such as the internet. Furthermore, the Security Rule allows flexibility in the type of encryption that covered entities may use. These are the tech measures, policies, and procedures that protect and control access to electronic health data. Furthermore, this rule requires that workforce members only have access to PHI as appropriate for their roles and job functions.

The objective of this review is to provide an in-depth examination of the opportunities and challenges presented by AI-powered chatbots in healthcare communication and how they are instrumental in fostering positive shifts in patient behavior and lifestyle choices. Healthcare communication is a multifaceted domain that encompasses interactions between patients, healthcare providers, caregivers, and the broader healthcare ecosystem. Effective communication has long been recognized as a fundamental element of quality healthcare delivery. It plays a pivotal role in patient education, adherence to treatment plans, early detection of health issues, and overall patient satisfaction. Nevertheless, the advent of the digital age has presented both opportunities and challenges to traditional healthcare communication approaches. First, we used IAB categories, classification parameters utilized by 42Matters; this relied on the correct classification of apps by 42Matters and might have resulted in the potential exclusion of relevant apps.

chatbot in healthcare

The use of chatbots in healthcare is one of these technological developments that has gained popularity. These sophisticated conversational tools, sometimes known as medical chatbots or health bots, help patients and healthcare providers communicate easily. We will examine the methodical approach to creating and deploying chatbots in the healthcare industry in this post. In the healthcare field, in addition to the above-mentioned Woebot, there are numerous chatbots, such as Your.MD, HealthTap, Cancer Chatbot, VitaminBot, Babylon Health, Safedrugbot and Ada Health (Palanica et al. 2019). One example of a task-oriented chatbot is a medical chatbot called Omaolo developed by the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), which is an online symptom assessment tool (e-questionnaire) (Atique et al. 2020, p. 2464; THL 2020).

Their study ran from late August to early October, and questions were asked in French, German, and English. To come up with appropriate prompts for each election, the researchers crowdsourced which questions voters in each region were likely to ask. In total, the researchers asked 867 questions at least once, and in some cases asked the same question multiple times, leading to a total of 5,759 recorded conversations.

This means, particularly in relation to medical information, that the responses they provide may be out-of-date as soon as the dataset is closed.5 Generalizability of AI datasets and AI algorithm bias are discussed in more detail later in this report. For an effective chatbot application and enjoyable user experience, chatbot in healthcare chatbots must be designed to make interactions as natural as possible; and this requires machine learning models that can enable the bot to understand the intent and context of conversations. There is no doubting the extent to which the use of AI, including chatbots, will continue to grow in public health.

Before designing a conversational pathway for an AI driven healthcare bot, one must first understand what makes a productive conversation. Furthermore, hospitals and private clinics use medical chat bots to triage and clerk patients even before they come into the consulting room. These bots ask relevant questions about the patients’ symptoms, with automated responses that aim to produce a sufficient medical history for the doctor. Subsequently, these patient histories are sent via a messaging interface to the doctor, who triages to determine which patients need to be seen first and which patients require a brief consultation. The advantages of chatbots in healthcare are enormous – and all stakeholders share the benefits. Neither does she miss a dose of the prescribed antibiotic – a healthcare chatbot app brings her up to speed on those details.

In the landscape of digital health, AI-powered chatbots have emerged as transformative tools, reshaping the dynamics of telemedicine and remote patient monitoring. These innovations hold great promise for expanding healthcare access, enhancing patient outcomes, and streamlining healthcare systems. By enabling healthcare services to transcend geographical barriers, chatbots empower patients with unparalleled access to care while relieving the strain on overburdened healthcare facilities (8). They have become versatile tools, contributing to various facets of healthcare communication and delivery. Chatbots embedded in healthcare websites and mobile apps offer users real-time access to medical information, assisting in self-diagnosis and health education (5). You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. Chatbots are now equipped with advanced conversational AI capabilities to understand complex questions, engage in natural dialogue, and build rapport with users.

Regularly update security protocols to align with evolving regulations and standards. Conduct regular audits to identify and patch vulnerabilities, ensuring the chatbot’s adherence to legal requirements. Proactively monitor regulation changes and update the chatbot accordingly to avoid legal challenges for clients.

chatbot in healthcare

Layla was designed and developed through community-based participatory research, where the community that would benefit from the chatbot also had a say in its design. Layla demonstrates the potential of AI to empower community-led health interventions. Such approaches also raise important questions about the production of knowledge, a concern that AI more broadly is undergoing a reckoning with [19].

chatbot in healthcare

In addition, this paper will explore the limitations and areas of concern, highlighting ethical, moral, security, technical, and regulatory standards and evaluation issues to explain the hesitancy in implementation. Infused with advanced AI capabilities, medical chatbot play a pivotal role in the initial assessment of symptoms. While not a substitute for professional diagnosis, this feature equips users with initial insights into their symptoms before seeking guidance from a healthcare professional. Healthcare chatbots are AI-enabled digital assistants that allow patients to assess their health and get reliable results anywhere, anytime.

chatbot in healthcare

The underlying technology that supports such healthbots may include a set of rule-based algorithms, or employ machine learning techniques such as natural language processing (NLP) to automate some portions of the conversation. ChatGPT and similar chatbot-style artificial intelligence software may soon serve a critical frontline role in the healthcare industry. ChatGPT is a large language model using vast amounts of data to generate predictive text responses to user queries. Released on November 30, 2022, ChatGPT, or Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer, has become one of the fastest-growing consumer software applications, with hundreds of millions of global users.

This concept is described by Paul Grice in his maxim of quantity, which depicts that a speaker gives the listener only the required information, in small amounts. Doing the opposite may leave many users bored and uninterested in the conversation. First, the chatbot helps Peter relieve the pressure of his perceived mistake by letting him know it’s not out of the ordinary, which may restore his confidence; then, it provides useful steps to help him deal with it better. The chatbot responded quickly, stating that Funiciello was alleged to have received money from a lobbying group financed by pharmaceutical companies in order to advocate for the legalization of cannabis products. When asked about electoral candidates, it listed numerous GOP candidates who have already pulled out of the race. With less than a year to go before one of the most consequential elections in US history, Microsoft’s AI chatbot is responding to political queries with conspiracies, misinformation, and out-of-date or incorrect information.

They have the potential to prevent misinformation, detect symptoms, and lessen the mental health burden during global pandemics [111]. At the global health level, chatbots have emerged as a socially responsible technology to provide equal access to quality health care and break down the barriers between the rich and poor [112]. To further advance medicine and knowledge, the use of chatbots in education for learning and assessments is crucial for providing objective feedback, personalized content, and cost-effective evaluations [113]. For example, the development of the Einstein app as a web-based physics teacher enables interactive learning and evaluations but is still far from being perfect [114]. Given chatbots’ diverse applications in numerous aspects of health care, further research and interdisciplinary collaboration to advance this technology could revolutionize the practice of medicine. Although studies have shown that AI technologies make fewer mistakes than humans in terms of diagnosis and decision-making, they still bear inherent risks for medical errors [104].

She uses Jasper to help her tidy up both the structure and spelling of her written work, which now even includes a recently published self-help book for people with neurodiversity. “We are looking at the future of the interaction between ourselves and machines,” said Mira Murati, the company’s chief technology officer. “Since we observed this language disparity in their performance, LLM developers should focus on improving accuracy, correctness, consistency, and reliability in other languages,” Jin said. 3 min read – This ground-breaking technology is revolutionizing software development and offering tangible benefits for businesses and enterprises.

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